Home About Contact  
Export Assistance
Guides to Exporting
Finding Export Finance
Export Consultants
Export Documentation
Register as an exporter
Proforma Invoice
Commercial Invoice
Letters of credit
Packing Lists
Exchange Control Forms
Insurance Forms
Customs Documents
Document Completion Guide
Export Training
Training providers
Training calendar
Export Guide
Export Marketing
What is involved in export Marketing?
Export Marketing Channels
Using Export Agents
Finding Export Agents
The Role of Trade Fairs
Preparing to participate in a Trade Fair
Finding Trade Fairs
Inward Bound Missions
Outward Bound Missions
The Internet and Exporting
Website internationalisation
Export portals
Overseas Trade Missions
Embassies and Consulates
Financial Assistance for Export Marketing
ETO Systems
Dealing with Export Environments
Trade Agreements
Export Tools
Export Readiness Checker
Export Checklists
Export Business Planner
Export SWOT Analyser
Country Risk Evaluator
Product map
Translation Resources
Currency Converter
Export Documentation
Document Completion Guide
SA and Foreign Tariff Databases
Export Software & Technology solutions
Tracking tools
Exporting & the internet
Export e-Newsletter
Export Law
Laws affecting Exports
Maritime Insurance
Exchange Control
SA Export Regulations
Trade/Maritime Lawyers
ITC Services

Step 13: Revising your export costings and price

You are here:Step 13: Revising your export costings and price > Marginal cost pricing



Marginal cost pricing


Fixed, variable and total costs

Manufacturing costs, apart from being split into direct and indirect costs, can also be divided into fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed and variable costs are added together to calculate total costs in the following formula:

  • Total costs = Fixed costs + variable costs

    Fixed costs are those costs, such as factory rental, capital eqipment repayments and permanent staff salaries, which at least in the short or medium term, remain unchanged regardless of the level of output achieved.

    Variable costs are those costs, such as raw material purchases, wages and electricity, which vary directly according to the level of output achieved.

    Breakeven point

    Once a company has achieved an output that generates sufficient revenue (or income from sales) to cover both the firm's fixed and variable costs, it will have reached a breakeven point. At this point, total revenue is equal to total costs. Above breakeven, the only additional costs incurred should be variable costs; therefore, any price per unit that exceeds the variable costs, will yield a profit.

    Marginal costing

    Marginal-cost pricing involves basing the price on the variable costs of producing a product, not on the total costs (i.e fixed and variable costs).

    Obviously, the company cannot, within its local markets, sell some of its stock at normal prices and the rest at marginal-cost prices. All prices would have to be reduced with the result that a greater volume of output would be required to reach a breakeven point. The exporter can, however, take advantage of cost pricing in certain export markets becuase it would be difficult for the import to directly compare the export price with the domestic selling price - but the target markets should be sufficiently divorced from the company's main markets to prevent price levels in the local markets being affected.

    Marginal-cost pricing should only be considered when the profitable use of resources, such as an alternative market which may offer high price levels, or a more profitable product that could be manufactured at the same plant, can no longer be identified. It has obvious attractions for markets where lower income levels dictate lower prices or where foreign competition is such that a company cannot compete at normal price levels. However, it should relate only to short-term business aimed at disposing of temporary surpluses following the construction of new plant or a seasonal fall-off in other orders.

    An example of marginal cost pricing

    To illustrate the concept of marginal costing, let us use an example:

    Assume there is a local company that produces backpacks. The firm has the capacity to produce 60 000 backpacks per year given the size of its factory and the number of machines it has available (these are large capital-intensive machines that cannot easily be increased in number without incurring long-term financing costs). The comapny, irrespective of whether it achieves any sales whatsoever has fixed costs amounting to R700 000 per year (including management and permanent staff salaries, factory rent, insurance costs and capital equipment repayments).

    The variable cost of producing a single backpack for the domestic market, is R42 per unit. This covers materials, wages, electricity, yarns, dyes, etc. The variable cost for producing a single backpack for the export market is R59 per unit. The extra R17 covers international transportation, additional insurance, additional labelling, special packaging, import duties and the import agent's commissions.

    Currently the firm sells 45 000 units domestically. The breakeven cost per unit of these domestic sales are therefore:

    Breakeven cost per unit = Total costs / total number of unit solds
      = (Fixed costs + variable costs) / total number of unit solds
      = (R700 000 + (R42 x 45 000 units)) / 45 000
      = R2 590 000 / 45 000 units sold
      = R57.56 per unit

    If this company now generates an export order for 10 000 units per annum, the breakeven cost of this export order will be calculated as follows:

    Breakeven cost per unit = Total costs / total number of unit solds
      = (Fixed costs + (variable costs for domestic sales + variable costs for export sales)) / total number of unit solds
      = (R700 000 + ((R42 x 45 000 units) + (R59 x 10 000 units))) / 55 000
      = (R700 000 + R1 890 000 + R590 000) / 55 000
      = R3 180 000 / 55 000
      = R57.82 per unit

    Using marginal costing methods, however, the firm would ignore fixed costs for its export sales and would calculate the per unit price based on variable costs alone. This would be done as follows:

    Breakeven cost per unit (Marginal costing method) = Total variable costs / total number of units sold
      = (Variable costs for domestic sales + variable costs for export sales) / total number of units sold
      = ((R42 x 45 000 units) + (R59 x R10 000)) / 55 000 units
      = (R1 890 000 + R590 000) / 55 000
      = R2 480 000 / 55 000
      = R45.09

    Clearly, R45.09 per unit is a more competitive (breakeven) price than R57.82 and the marginal costing method thus allows many exporters to enter and compete in export markets which they otherwise would not be able to do because of selling prices that are simply too high.

    Follow this link for an EXAMPLE

    Marginal costing is generally not viewed favourably

    Apart from the obvious disadvantage of lower profit generation, marginal-cost pricing may also be viewed by the government of the importing country as dumping. This is likely to be the case where the country concerned has competing industries which require protection from unfair competition. A company could then face the imposition of high countervailing duties by the government, in order to correct the imbalance in prices.

    Dumping is the sale of a product in a foreign market at a price lower than that at which the same product is being sold in the exporting country's domestic market.

    From a national point of view, marginal-cost pricing is seen as contrary to a country's overall export objectives because a commitment to exports is likely to be lacking. As soon as an opportunity to increase sales volumes in the domestic market arises, the exporting company is likely to shift its activities from the foreign market to the local market. This action gives rise to mistrust amongst foreign buyers of all other suppliers residing in the same country as being totally unreliable.

Top of page


Step 13: more information

Step 13: Revising your export costings and price
      .Revisit the costing exercise
      .Revisit your pricing strategy
      .Consider the various cost reduction alternatives available to you
      .Decide on a new export price

Click where you want to go

© Interactive Reality

More information on Step 13
Learning to export...
The export process in 21 easy steps
Step 1: Considering exporting
Step 2:Current business viability
Step 3:Export readiness
Step 4:Broad mission statement and initial budget
Step 5:Confirming management's commitment to exports
Step 6: Undertaking an initial SWOT analysis of the firm
Step 7:Selecting and researching potential countries abroad
Step 8: Preparing and implementing your export plan
Step 9: Obtaining financing for your exports
Step 10: Managing your export risk
Step 11: Promoting the firm and its products abroad
Step 12: Negotiating and quoting in exports
Step 13: Revising your export costings and price
Step 14: Obtaining the export order
Step 15: Producing the goods
Step 16: Handling the export logistics
Step 17: Export documentation
Step 18: Providing follow-up support
Step 19: Getting paid
Step 20: Reviewing and improving the export process
Step 21: Export Management
Export Reference
HS Codes
SIC Codes
Country Codes
Airline Codes
Airport Codes
Port Codes
Telephone Codes
Industry specific export control
Electricity Voltages
Transportation Types
Container Types
Hazardous Cargo Symbols
International Trade Agreements
Country Info
Export Documentation
Trading cycle
Export Articles
Export Glossary
Export Acronyms
Export Opportunities
Export portals
Export calendar
Inward Bound Missions
Outward Bound Missions
Trade Fairs SA
International Trade Fairs
Country Info
Country Help
SA Missions Abroad
Missions in SA
SA Representatives
Bilateral Chambers
Export Network
SA Economic Representatives
SA Missions Abroad
Missions in SA
Export Councils
Export Consultants
Export Trainers
Export Agents
Customs Clearing Agents
Trading Companies
Export Financiers
Bilateral Chambers
Government Departments
Trade Associations
Freight Forwarders
Airline Companies
Shipping Lines
Road Haulers
Courier companies
Trade/Maritime Lawyers
World Trade Point Federation
South African Translators
Universities with international Expertise
International Trade Statistics
Import and Export Statistics
Main Trading Partners
Main Export Products
Economic Statistics
SA Statistics
SA Reserve Bank
Data Mapper®
UNCTAD Statistics


     Our sister sites:

Indexing the World


Trade Training





     Other useful links:

Freight & Logistics Gateway

Freight quotes